This is version 1 of an official certification for open source hardware housed in the Open Source Hardware Association. It outlines the purpose and goals of such a certification, and establishes the mechanisms for the operation of the certification process itself.
- Make it easier for the public to identify open source hardware.
- Expand the reach of open hardware by making it easier for newer members to join the open source hardware community.
This is an open source hardware certifications administered by OSHWA. Users will self-certify compliance in order to use the certification logos. In doing so, they will submit to oversight and enforcement by OSHWA.
This certification is designed to benefit at least two parts of the open source hardware community. First, it benefits purchasers of open source hardware by making it easy to identify truly open source hardware in the marketplace. Projects and products obtaining certification and displaying the certification logo clearly communicate a commonly agreed upon definition of openness with customers and users. While certification is not a condition for openness, obtaining certification is a way to make it clear to others that a given project is open source hardware.
Second, the certification benefits creators of open source hardware. By giving creators specific guidelines, certification allows open source hardware creators to confidently declare their projects and products as open source hardware. Certification also allows creators to defend that declaration by pointing to compliance with specific criteria defined in the certification process.
The certification will operate as a self-certification. Creators will not apply to OSHWA for certification. Instead, creators will self-certify compliance with certification standards. Self-certification will give creators the right to use the OSHWA open source hardware certification logo. As part of the self-certification process, creators will agree to subject themselves to penalties for non-compliance. OSHWA will be responsible for enforcing those penalties.
While open source hardware is already well defined, one of the greatest challenges in creating an open source hardware certification is determining how to handle non-open components. Full openness is a worthy goal, and companies and projects that strive towards it should be identified and commended. However, many well-known open source hardware projects and products strive towards openness but, by necessity, incorporate non-open components. The open source hardware definition recognizes this reality, and provides guidance on how best to handle non-open components in the context of open source hardware.
In order to address this challenge, the OSHWA certification focuses on the creator’s contribution. For the purposes of the certification, openness will be determined by the openness of the contribution made by the creators of the project. A certified project will be required to share its entire contribution (including the contribution of affiliated corporate entities, if appropriate) in accordance with the open source hardware definition, but not expected to avoid third party closed components beyond its control. A certified project should use open parts over equivalent non-open parts when they are available. However, no project will be found in violation of the certification simply because it incorporates non-open parts beyond its control.
Finally, certifications are not available aspirationally. A project or product that intends to be open source but is not yet open source is not eligible for certification. This includes pre-production projects such as Kickstarter campaigns. If the certification is used in a Kickstarter-type campaign, the project must at that time be in compliance with certification requirements. To avoid confusion, projects should not advertise their intention to comply with certification standards until they have met certification standards.
The creator’s contribution is defined at everything within the creator’s control. While some elements of a project may come from third parties beyond the scope of the creator’s control (for example, hex-only source files versus the full stack), the creator is required to fully open and document all elements within their control in compliance with the open source hardware definition. If the creator is or is employed by a corporation, this obligation extends to any elements within the control of that corporation and associated entities. This requirement is specifically designed to prevent corporations from creating “open subsidiaries” that make use of corporate technology without having to open the technology itself. In some ways, this requirement can be thought of as a rule of “do the best you can,” while recognizing that the openness of some elements is beyond the control of any individual creator.
OSHWA open source hardware certification will operate on a fee-free, self-certifying basis. OSHWA will maintain a list of certification requirements at OSHWA.org, and creators are required to notify OSHWA that they intend to make use of the certification. This notification will take the form of an email to a dedicated email address and its contents will be publicly displayed on the OSHWA website. Notification will be intentionally lightweight, and OSHWA welcomes the creation and continued development of rich third party databases and listings of open source hardware projects and products.
By using OSHWA open source hardware certification logos and seals, a creator is attesting that she is in compliance with all relevant requirements and is agreeing to comply with any penalties imposed by OSHWA for misuse.
OSHWA will work to enforce the use of certification marks and invites third parties to bring violations of certification marks by way of informal complaints. Upon investigation of an alleged violation, OSHWA may impose escalating penalties for violations. Alleged violators may elect to remove the OSHWA certification logo instead of remedying the violation. In order to avoid penalties in such situations, alleged violators will be required to comply with a notification regime instigated by OSHWA designed to communicate the decision to impacted parties.
Complaints are not required for OSHWA to initiate an investigation of a project or product. Complaints can be brought by anyone if the complainant believes that an OSHWA open source hardware certification is being used without complying with requirements. Complainants are highly encouraged to reach out to the potential violators before contacting OSHWA – many good faith errors can easily be resolved once they are brought to the attention of responsible parties. If that direct contact fails to resolve the concern, complaints should be sent to a dedicated email address and should include as much information and context as possible in order to assist investigation. Complaints will be investigated at OSHWA’s discretion. As a general rule, complaints cannot be made anonymously to OSHWA. However, unless it is relevant to the investigation, OSHWA will avoid disclosing the identity of the complainant to the target of the complaint. Additionally, OSHWA reserves the right to allow anonymous complaints in extraordinary circumstances.
Penalties for the use of OSHWA open source hardware certifications are designed to make it easy for violators to return to compliance (or become compliant in the first place). As such, penalties are designed to escalate over time, giving violators multiple opportunities to comply before the imposition of significant penalties. For each level of penalty, OSHWA will make best efforts to communicate with the party responsible for the project or product in question. The responsible party will have a reasonable amount of time to respond to the complaint and to each layer of penalty before OSHWA imposes additional penalty. OSHWA alone will determine if a project or product is in compliance and when to impose penalties. As appropriate, OSHWA will lift penalties when projects become compliant. Enforcement will consist of:
- Bringing the alleged failure to comply to the attention of the responsible party and giving the responsible party an opportunity to respond and/or correct
- A second attempt to contact the responsible party to structure a path towards compliance
- Public listing of the non-compliant project or product on the OSHWA website
- Monthly fines not to exceed $500 per month
- Monthly fines not to exceed $1,000 per month
- Monthly fines not to exceed $10,000 per month